Emotional Impacts Underlying Factors

Principal Components Results Summary

A total of 24 variables and 654 responses were included in the analysis of responses to the question, “How did your involvement in the arts during college make you feel?” Eight components overall had an eigenvalue greater than 1, explaining a cumulative 70% of the variation. Five components explaining a cumulative 56% of the variation were extracted for description. Each dimension is characterized by distributions of responses that illustrate different themes that may sometimes in tension with each other. Each of these dimensions is described in more detail in the sections below.

A scree plot, dimension eigenvalues, and a loadings table for the variables included in the analysis follow at the bottom of this page.

MANOVA Results Summary

term

df

pillai

statistic

num.df

den.df

p.value

signif.

1

ethnic_group

4

0.332569131660344

1.2876811694926

20

284

0.18573425920309

2

sex

1

0.0269053509302252

0.376029991533562

5

68

0.863461045559523

3

school

12

0.763742714208868

1.08172284545211

60

360

0.326936434357077

4

parented

5

0.385979340819069

1.20461153478694

25

360

0.230569162573251

5

income

3

0.288396005748896

1.4889873628467

15

210

0.111197827750187

6

artsincollege

1

0.0990669586078516

1.49546145514308

5

68

0.202849053127901

7

hstype

4

0.273867367814517

1.04368711660303

20

284

0.410611290603862

8

hssize

4

0.420623335454927

1.6686847804041

20

284

0.0378880475966631

*

9

hslocation

2

0.196567301479799

1.504147486428

10

138

0.144007814919684

10

hs_arts_freq

2

0.126059353165991

0.928321330043046

10

138

0.509350552124451

11

hs_encouragement

1

0.0843792468203794

1.25331121293626

5

68

0.294287280101754

12

hs_required

1

0.0422815663922278

0.600415824479994

5

68

0.699720051569038

13

hs_fees

1

0.0199296267923608

0.276554553413364

5

68

0.924445211375083

14

so_childhood1

1

0.0272706136968855

0.381278032205014

5

68

0.859939378313645

15

so_childhood3

1

0.0591848852567305

0.855550072355269

5

68

0.515562339645883

16

so_childhood5

1

0.0358565295314321

0.505784477688246

5

68

0.770885927313458

17

sr_participated

1

0.104024592999827

1.57898805452075

5

68

0.177769524775319

18

sr_highestdegreeplanned

2

0.0957637568024133

0.693999942808661

10

138

0.728725038163163

19

Residuals

72

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

Signif. codes: 0 ‘ *** ‘ 0.001 ‘ ** ‘ 0.01 ‘ * ‘ 0.05 ‘ . ‘ 0.1 ‘ ‘ 1

Demographic Contrasts Results Summary

In addition, we tested for demographic patterns in the responses along each dimension, by conducting an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a Tukey posthoc test to compare the principal component scores between demographic factor levels. Demographic variables that showed contrasts (Tukey adj.p.value < 0.05) between factor levels indicated differences that are unlikely to be due to chance. These differences may suggest an association between the direction of the demographic factors difference and the areas of emotional impact described by the accompanying dimension/principal component.

Demographic factor level contrasts were observed for Dimensions 2, 3, 4, and 5. Dimensions 2, 4, and 5 each showed an association with High School Arts Frequency (hs_arts_freq). sr_participated and artsincollege also showed contrasts for Dimension 2, suggesting a firm role of prior exposure to the arts for Dimension 2. High School Location (hslocation) and so_childhood5 differences emerged for for Dimension 3. Demographic factors that had associations with each of the dimensions are listed below, along with statistical tables and accompanying figures illustrating the contrasts between factor levels. A brief description accompanies each dimension to summarize the results.


Dimension 1: Very Positive -vs- Ambivalent, but Positive

Dimension 1 (the first principal component) explains about 19% of the variation among responses to the feel question. Responses that characterize this dimension are Very Positive in one direction, and Ambivalent, but Positive in the other direction.

Resonses that are Very Positive are a synthesis of the topic variables of:

LIWC..Analytic
LIWC..Clout
LIWC..posemo
LIWC..affect

LIWC..Clout is associated with social status and lower use of first person pronouns [18], while LIWC..Analytic signifies categorical language combining heightened abstract thinking, greater article use, cognitive complexity, and greater use of prepositions [22]. Together, these variables and the content of the responses suggest a more direct, simple response and a more categorical indication of emotional impact. LIWC..posemo, a subcategory of psychological affective process LIWC..affect, indicates the presence of positive emotion words. Taken together, responses in this direction show a concise and positive reaction to the question.

“Great. It helped me make friends, and it also helped me grow while staying connected to my past.”

“I feel now that I am contributing to the world in a very important, positive way that can affect everyone, not only local audiences.”

“I felt that I was a part of something and that I had something to contribute to a group and a vision and to making that vision a reality.”

“Creative, independent, and fulfilled.”

“More creative and open-minded.”

“All kinds of things. Blessed, excited, inadequate, encouraged, stressed.”

“Empowered. Creative. Talented. Relieved. Calm. Powerful. Beautiful. Strong. Emotional. Loving.”

“Good knowing I have a special creativity and others had their own too; a great supportive system”

“My involvement made me feel more connected to the university and helped me expressive my creative desires”

“I enjoy drawing and photography. It is a stress reliever and I like having a tangible product representing my work”

Ambivalent, but Positive describes the other direction of this dimension, synthesizing the topic variables:

LIWC..function
LIWC..Authentic
AIC..IC

Responses in this direction showed a greater degree of complexity (AIC..IC), as well as a greater sense of authenticity (LIWC..Authentic). This authenticity is characterized by more self-reference words such as personal pronouns, fewer negative emotion words, and increased markers of cognitive complexity [21]. Indeed, there is correspondence between both of the variables LIWC..Authentic and AIC..IC here, suggesting that some students are engaging in a more complex reflection on the emotional impacts of their arts experiences than others.

“I was not as involved in the arts during college as I would have liked…I also wish I could have taken more classes in the arts, like film and photography, and maybe creative writing. I was unable to do so due to financial constraints; I only took classes for which I could get credit towards my major (and as an engineering major, few, if any, arts classes are applicable). There are a lot of things I wish I could go back and change in terms of my arts and culture experience at Michigan. Sadly, there is no going back, but I am lucky that I’ll be living in the greatest city in the world next year (New York), where artistic and cultural opportunities abound.”

“The arts make me think of a different view on life. I don’t get a chance to experience them a lot, but when I do its very refreshing”

“I wish that I could actually participate rather than just attend”

../../_images/feel_biplot12.png

Fig. 36 ABOVE: Biplot for Dimensions 1 and 2 for ‘Emotional Impact’

Dimension 2: Connected and Fulfilled -vs- Enjoyment and Regret

Dimension 2 explains about 14% of the variation among responses to the feel question, and this dimension is characterized by responses that expressed feelings of being Connected and Fulfilled in one direction, and by responses expressing Enjoyment and Regret in the other direction.

Connected and Fulfilled is the label describing one direction of this dimension; it is a synthesis of the topic variables of:

AIC..ELAB
topic..Connected_to_Others_through_the_Arts
AIC..DIAL
topic..Gained_Perspective_and_Appreciation
topic..Part_of_Something_Bigger
topic..Proud
AIC..IC

Responses that expressed a feeling on being Connected and Fulfilled connected both the topic of feeling connected to others and part of something bigger, and they also expressed that feeling through the complexity of their responses AIC..ELAB, AIC..DIAL, and AIC..IC.

“Connected to those around me in a “bigger than myself” kind of way.”

“Involved and a part of something bigger than myself.”

“Good, like I’m a part of something bigger than myself and bigger than this university.”

“It makes me feel like I’m part of a community and more connected to the University”

“I feel very accomplished after I finish a creative project. I feel more connected to a creative project than I do when I study for an objective exam or finish some memorization homework.

I feel like it uses more critical thinking, and I feel more connected to the project and I learn the material better.”

“It made me feel competent, accomplished, gave me an opportunity to express myself as well as gain a greater appreciation of the arts.”

“GREAT! Without the arts involvement I had I would probably not be sane, and am utterly grateful for programs like Arts at Michigan that make my involvement possible. The arts are a great way for me to meet and collaborate people studying entirely different things, and to also bring the arts into what I am studying (neuroscience/pre-med). At times, the arts also provide a good way to get away from all my daily stresses and clear my mind too.”

“I’m a civil engineer and often spend the majority of my time thinking analytically and technically. My exposure to the arts has been a nice contrast, opening up my mind to a whole new way of thinking/expression.”

Enjoyment and Regret describes the other direction of this dimension, synthesizing the topic variables:

topic..Regretful
topic..Wishful
topic..Entertained

Responses in this direction expressed positivity towards the arts, but they mainly expredded regret and guilt associated with a loss of opportunity or to have had a richer experience. In many ways this is consistent with Dimension 1 expressions of ambivalence, although responses here tend towards simpler, more categorical statments of regret.

“I wish I was involved in the arts more in college. It makes me sad.”

“I really enjoyed the performances I have gone to and they make me wish I had been a part of something like them.”

“I consistently enjoy my involvement with the arts.”

“I really enjoyed participating in the arts and it made the college feel a little smaller and more intimate”

“Some regret that I was not able to participate more.”

“I wish I would have attended more performances.”

Demographic Factors for Dimension 2

Students who participated in the arts in high school or in college had higher mean principal component scores along Dimension 2 — in contrast to students that reported no participation (Table 1). Students that occasionally or frequently participated in the arts in high school — as well as those who participated in college — were more likely to have responses that fell into the Enjoyment and Regret range of Dimension 1 (Table 1; Figures 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3).

One explanation for this pattern is that not all students are art majors or plan to do the arts in their career, and while they are expressing a sense of enjoyment from it, they are also expressing regret at having to make trade-offs. These trade-offs (time, schedule, attention, etc) show up in responses to other questions as well.

TABLE 1: demographic contrasts for Dimension 2

question_name

PC_num

demographic

comparison

estimate

adj.p.value

feel

PC2

hs_arts_freq

Occasionally-Never

1.026224411

0.026920793

feel

PC2

hs_arts_freq

Frequently-Never

1.107645441

0.013969469

feel

PC2

sr_participated

Yes-No

0.958092239

2.11E-05

feel

PC2

artsincollege

Yes-No

0.592921711

9.14E-05

High School Arts Participation

../../_images/PC2-hs_arts_freq1.png

Fig. 37 ABOVE: Density plot of hs_arts_freq contrasts. Density plot of income contrasts Demographic variables that showed contrasts (Tukey adj.p.value < 0.05) between factor levels indicated differences that are unlikely to be due to chance. These differences may suggest an association between the direction of the demographic factors difference and the barriers described by the accompanying dimension/principal component.

Participated in College

../../_images/PC2-sr_participated1.png

Fig. 38 ABOVE: Density plot of sr_participated contrasts. Demographic variables that showed contrasts (Tukey adj.p.value < 0.05) between factor levels indicated differences that are unlikely to be due to chance. These differences may suggest an association between the direction of the demographic factors difference and the emotional impact described by the accompanying dimension/principal component.

Arts in College

../../_images/PC2-artsincollege1.png

Fig. 39 ABOVE: Density plot of artsincollege contrasts. Demographic variables that showed contrasts (Tukey adj.p.value < 0.05) between factor levels indicated differences that are unlikely to be due to chance. These differences may suggest an association between the direction of the demographic factors difference and the emotional impact described by the accompanying dimension/principal component.

Dimension 3: Empowered -vs- Meaningly Gratified

Dimension 3 explains about 9% of the variation among responses to the feel question. This dimension is characterized by responses focused on Empowered in one direction, and by responses about Meaningly Gratified in the other direction.

Empowered is the label given to describe one direction of this dimension; it is a synthesis of the topic variables of:

topic..Entertained
topic..Proud
topic..Accomplished_and_Creative
topic..Less_Stressed_and_More_Expressive

Responses in the Empowered direction suggest a feeling of accomplishment, an easing of stress (and perhaps improved capacity), and an overall greater sense of pride and confidence arising from their experiences.

“It made me feel accomplished and proud.”

“It has given me a way to express myself creatively, and perform in front of my peers and family.”

“Creating art has enabled me to approach situations differently and to explore their significance in my life. Attending arts has made me feel smarter and more cultured.”

“Empowered, open-minded”

“It makes me feel empowered. I feel like I am able to create something that other people can on some level appreciate.”

“Empowered, creative, and encouraged that I don’t have to give up art even if I’m busy with academic stuff.”

Meaningly Gratified describes the other direction of this dimension, synthesizing the topic variables:

topic..Grateful
topic..Well_Rounded
topic..Gained_Perspective_and_Appreciation
topic..Happy

Responses in the Meaningly Gratified direction suggest a broader perspective, as well as a sense of gratitude arising from the increase awareness and fulfillment.

“Made me happy because I discovered this gift that I’ve been given.”

“It made me feel important, as though my voice mattered and I could create things that I could look back on with pride. The evolution of my fiction writing is one of the most important things that’s happened to me while at college.”

“It was wonderful to put on our Slam/Open Mics every two weeks: I loved the feeling of our regulars coming back every time, changing with us, sharing their changes with us.”

“Part of a community, while still a unique and appreciated individual. Participation in the arts has given me more self-confidence.”

“It makes me feel like I truly grew as a person and took advantage of my college experience.”

“It made me feel more educated and well rounded, it also made me feel that I had the ability to have more intellectual conversations with anyone.”

Students from rural high schools had higher mean principal component scores, compared to students from suburban high schools, and were thus more likely to have responses in the Meaningly Gratified direction (Table 1; Figure 2.1).

Students whose parents did not talk to them about the arts were also more likely to have responses in the Meaningly Gratified direction (Table 1; Figure 2.2).

TABLE 2: demographic contrasts for Dimension 3

question_name

PC_num

demographic

comparison

estimate

adj.p.value

feel

PC3

hslocation

Rural-Suburban

0.388898371

0.037443181

feel

PC3

so_childhood5

No-Yes

0.409122456

0.037470502

High School Location

../../_images/PC3-hslocation.png

Fig. 40 ABOVE: Density plot of hslocation contrasts. Demographic variables that showed contrasts (Tukey adj.p.value < 0.05) between factor levels indicated differences that are unlikely to be due to chance. These differences may suggest an association between the direction of the demographic factors difference and the emotional impact described by the accompanying dimension/principal component.

Parental Influence

../../_images/PC3-so_childhood5.png

Fig. 41 ABOVE: Density plot of so_childhood5 contrasts. Demographic variables that showed contrasts (Tukey adj.p.value < 0.05) between factor levels indicated differences that are unlikely to be due to chance. These differences may suggest an association between the direction of the demographic factors difference and the emotional impact described by the accompanying dimension/principal component.

../../_images/feel_biplot34.png

Fig. 42 ABOVE: Biplot for Dimensions 3 and 4 for ‘Emotional Impact’

Dimension 4: Less Elaborative -vs- More Elaborative

Dimension 4 explains about 8% of the variation among responses to the feel question, and this dimension is characterized by responses that are Less Elaborative in one direction, and by responses about More Elaborative in the other direction.

More Elaborative describes the other direction of this dimension, synthesizing the topic variables:

AIC..IC
AIC..ELAB
AIC..DIAL

Responses in the More Elaborative direction build, with greater complexity, on their themes and perspectives.

“Grateful that I am still able to continue dancing and even take classes through the UM Dance Department. I also feel very lucky for having UMS and School of Music, Theater, and Dance performances, among other arts events, to go to. However, I also wish I had more time to be more involved in the arts during college.”

“It makes me feel more connected to other individuals with my same interests in arts and it also serves as a gateway for me to be involved with my own culture.”

“It makes me feel connected with the rest of the student body. I may not be able to personally work in some of the events that I attend, but I am able to understand and appreciate the amount of work and dedication that was put in by those who I observe. I’m able to get an impression of the rest of my fellow students and of their work. My involvement also allows me to explore parts of my interests which are not purely academically related. Despite the fact that I am truly dedicated to what I do, the arts allow me to at least be interested in areas that I do not personally participate in.”

“It made me feel talented–being part of an arts organization is a great way to make yourself feel like you’re part of something, and if you’re good at what you do, it makes it that much better–especially when other people appreciate your work.”

These More Elaborative responses are in contrast to somewhat Less Elaborative responses that do not go into greath depth or add layers to their perspective.

“It made me feel accomplished and proud.”

“It made me feel like I’m putting my time to good use.”

“Stressed, but fulfilled.”

“It made me feel more knowledgeable about the world and better able to relate to others.”

Students who frequently participated in the arts in high school had higher mean principal component scores for Dimension 4 than students who occasionally participated (Table 3; Figure 3.1). These students tended to be more elaborative about the emotional impacts of their experience, perhaps because they have had a stronger basis of experience to draw from.

TABLE 3: demographic contrasts for Dimension 4

question_name

PC_num

demographic

comparison

estimate

adj.p.value

feel

PC4

hs_arts_freq

Frequently-Occasionally

0.284726497

0.042470658

High School Arts Participation

../../_images/PC4-hs_arts_freq1.png

Fig. 43 ABOVE: Density plot of hs_arts_freq contrasts. Demographic variables that showed contrasts (Tukey adj.p.value < 0.05) between factor levels indicated differences that are unlikely to be due to chance. These differences may suggest an association between the direction of the demographic factors difference and the emotional impact described by the accompanying dimension/principal component.

Dimension 5: Cultured -vs- Accomplished

Dimension 5 explains about 6% of the variation among responses to the feel question, and this dimension is characterized by responses focused on Cultured in one direction, and by responses about Accomplished in the other direction.

Cultured descibes one direction of this dimension, and it synthesizes the variables:

LIWC..Analytic
topic..Culturally_Aware
topic..Refreshed

In most cases, responses in this direction contained simple and categorical responses that they felt more cultured. The associated variable LIWC..Analytic reinforces the straightforwardness of the responses. And coupled with topic..Refreshed, these responses may indicate an assocition between feeling cultured and a break from the norm. In the topic tree, for example, the parent category for topic..Refreshed and topic..Culturally_Aware is “Balanced”.

“The little involvement that I have had has made me feel cultured.”

“Smart, cultured, able to explain myself and articulate thoughts more accurately.”

“Attending theater productions made me excited and happy, and occasionally more cultured.”

“It makes me feel a bit more cultured and relatable to other people.”

Accomplished describes the other direction of this dimension, synthesizing the topic variables:

topic..Gained_Perspective_and_Appreciation
topic..Accomplished_and_Creative

Responses in the Accomplished direction, similarly indicate a feeling of accomplishment, as well as the perspective, pride, and appreciation that comes with accomplishment through practice and hard work.

“Accomplished; but also rushed, hurried, harried, and forced in the case of academic involvement in the arts.”

“Involvement in performing music made me feel accomplished, but most of all it was just fun.”

“It made me feel accomplished and proud.”

“Great! Fulfilled! Accomplished!!”

Students who frequently participated in the arts in high school had higher mean principal component scores for Dimension 5 than students who occasionally participated (Table 4; Figure 4.1). Thus students who frequently participated in the arts in high school were more likely to gain a feeling of being Accomplished.

TABLE 4: demographic contrasts for Dimension 5

question_name

PC_num

demographic

comparison

estimate

adj.p.value

feel

PC5

hs_arts_freq

Frequently-Occasionally

0.284058036

0.02253555

High School Arts Participation

../../_images/PC5-hs_arts_freq.png

Fig. 44 ABOVE: Density plot of hs_arts_freq contrasts. Demographic variables that showed contrasts (Tukey adj.p.value < 0.05) between factor levels indicated differences that are unlikely to be due to chance. These differences may suggest an association between the direction of the demographic factors difference and the emotional impact described by the accompanying dimension/principal component.

Selecting the Dimensions

Scree Plot and Explained Variance

This scree plot shows the explained variance of each of the dimensions and helps illustrate the criteria used for selecting the number of dimensions to be studied. In general, dimensions were included that helped account for at least 50% of the cumulative variance, leaving those dimensions that explained less than about 6% of the response variation uninterpreted.

../../_images/feel_screeplot.png

Fig. 45 ABOVE: Emotional Impacts Scree Plot

Eight components overall had an eigenvalue greater than 1, explaining a cumulative 70% of the variation. Five components explaining a cumulative 56% of the variation were extracted for description.

Emotional Impacts PC

eigenvalue

variance.percent

cumulative.variance.percent

Dim.1

4.44E+00

1.85E+01

18.52032

Dim.2

3.47E+00

1.44E+01

32.95865

Dim.3

2.03E+00

8.45E+00

41.40979

Dim.4

1.90E+00

7.93E+00

49.33894

Dim.5

1.54E+00

6.43E+00

55.77083

Dim.6

1.27E+00

5.27E+00

61.04221

Dim.7

1.20E+00

4.99E+00

66.0303

Dim.8

1.04E+00

4.34E+00

70.37352

Loadings Table for Variables Included in the Analysis

The table of loadings shows the loadings of all of the variables for each of the principal components studied for Emotional Impact (feel). Loadings with absolute values greater than 0.2 have been considered the most important for interpreting and describing each principal component.

Emotional Impact Variables

PC1

PC2

PC3

PC4

PC5

LIWC..function

0.394

-0.0332

-0.0484

-0.1386

0.0589

LIWC..Authentic

0.3359

-0.0258

-0.0327

-0.139

0.1202

AIC..IC

0.2165

-0.2688

-0.1146

0.4968

-0.0266

AIC..ELAB

0.183

-0.2061

-0.0436

0.4818

-0.0274

AIC..DIAL

0.181

-0.2331

-0.1594

0.3838

-0.0351

topic..Wishful

0.1457

0.4269

-0.0069

0.1587

0.0081

topic..Regretful

0.1243

0.4488

-0.0102

0.1746

0.02

topic..Part_of_Something_Bigger

0.1124

-0.2508

0.2182

-0.0185

-0.0445

topic..Grateful

0.1014

0.0529

0.4061

0.0955

0.1871

topic..Well_Rounded

0.0409

-0.1207

0.3749

-0.0162

-1.00E-04

topic..Refreshed

0.0117

-0.0384

0.0808

-0.1813

-0.4752

topic..Culturally_Aware

0.0105

-0.0827

0.1692

-0.0996

-0.4358

topic..Gained_Perspective_and_Appreciation

-0.0285

-0.2459

0.2624

-0.1066

0.4399

topic..Happy

-0.0483

0.0545

0.222

0.1834

-0.0109

topic..Entertained

-0.0594

0.3604

-0.2206

0.1389

0.0989

topic..Connected_to_Others_through_the_Arts

-0.0785

-0.218

-0.0458

0.0034

0.0019

topic..Less_Stressed_and_More_Expressive

-0.0853

-0.1202

-0.4564

-0.0746

-0.1781

topic..Proud

-0.1183

-0.261

-0.2304

-0.1951

0.1471

topic..Accomplished_and_Creative

-0.1401

-0.1045

-0.3247

-0.0734

0.3723

LIWC..Tone

-0.1998

-0.0825

0.1232

0.121

0.157

LIWC..Analytic

-0.2596

-0.0983

-0.0145

0.1365

-0.2357

LIWC..Clout

-0.2762

-0.0401

0.0546

0.1342

-0.1934

LIWC..posemo

-0.3985

0.048

0.1015

0.1821

0.0877

LIWC..affect

-0.4013

0.0472

0.0588

0.1712

0.0744

Citations {% bibliography –cited %}